Though the title of this very blog may lead one to suppose that the processes of human thought, feeling and behaviour are “All in Our Head” this, in fact, couldn’t be further from the case. The human brain is directly and intimately connected with the body of the human organism. We think what we think, feel what we feel, we are who we are and do what we do both because our brains are wired up in a particular way and because our bodies are configured and composed in a unique manner.
The recent discovery of direct, previously undetected connections between the human brain and the immune system is just one example of the reciprocal relationship between the mind and the body, suggesting the significance of the concept of the “embodied brain”…an idea that will be explored in much more depth in a series of upcoming posts…
Courtesy of University of Virginia:
In a stunning discovery that overturns decades of textbook teaching, researchers at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have determined that the brain is directly connected to the immune system by vessels previously thought not to exist.
That such vessels could have escaped detection when the lymphatic system has been so thoroughly mapped throughout the body is surprising on its own, but the true significance of the discovery lies in the effects it could have on the study and treatment of neurological diseases ranging from autism to Alzheimer’s disease to multiple sclerosis.
“Instead of asking, ‘How do we study the immune response of the brain?,’ ‘Why do multiple sclerosis patients have the immune attacks?,’ now we can approach this mechanistically – because the brain is like every other tissue connected to the peripheral immune system through meningeal lymphatic vessels,” said Jonathan Kipnis, a professor…
View original post 693 more words
The human brain is a sneaky little organ. It is constantly carrying out processes relevant for both perception and function without letting you know a thing.
In the 1930s Sigmund Freud popularized the notion of the conscious versus the unconscious mind. According to Freud the conscious mind consists of all the mental processes within our awareness. The unconscious mind on the other hand, houses all sorts of things that we have no conscious awareness of.
Freud’s work on the unconscious mind was primarily based on patient analysis and personal insights and, as such, had no true empirical foundation. Flashing forward to the technological and methodological advances of contemporary neuroscience however and much evidence has been produced revealing silent workings of unconscious processing.
Just one example of the unconscious mind at work is seen in cases of blindsight. Blindsight refers to the capacity of certain blind individuals to accurately guess the identity, movement and location of visual stimuli even though they cannot consciously see anything at all.
Pictures are powerful tools for illustrating quantitative data and capturing public interest. Each year, NASA releases many beautiful images of Martian dunes and distant nebulae which help win public funding. Likewise, when it comes to grabbing headlines and commanding public attention, noninvasive studies of functional brain activity often do best when they beautifully illustrate said activity as colorful pixels dancing on the convoluted surface of the cerebral cortex.
However, these images are missing a critical dimension: time. Brain activity takes place on a millisecond timescale, yet functional MRI captures this activity at a rate of about one full brain scan per second. This is rather akin to watching a movie filmed at a rate of one frame per second.
Joel is wearing an EEG cap.
EEG, short for electroencephalogram, is a comparatively old technology, first introduced by Hans Berger in 1929, in which electrodes placed on the scalp record…
View original post 398 more words
Place Cells; our inner GPS system and the stuff of Nobel Prizes
If you are at all interested in how the brain or mind works, for example if you study psychology, neuroscience or philosophy of mind, then you ought to know about place cells.
Images: Image 1 shows the path of a rat moving around a rectangular box (black line). Red squares show where a place cell fires. Image 2 shows the average firing rate of the cell at each location in the rectangular box – “hotter” colours indicate more rapid firing. Data from O’Keefe lab.
View original post 1,094 more words